The Flexner Report ― Years Later


flexner report

The Impact of the Flexner Report Page 2 of 26 and statutory, may have played supporting or even lead roles. This study is a preliminary at-tempt to quantify the influence of Flexner in terms of school closings and mergers attributable to his Report. In the absence of . Aug 16,  · Flexner Report Transformed Med Schools Abraham Flexner began working years ago on a massive report that transformed the way doctors are taught in America. The Flexner Report led to a greater emphasis on science and the closing of . Flexner Report. In , Flexner published the Flexner Report, which examined the state of American medical education and led to far-reaching reform in the training of doctors. The Flexner Report led to the closure of most rural medical schools and all but two African-American medical colleges in Alma mater: Johns Hopkins University.

Flexner report | definition of Flexner report by Medical dictionary

The Flexner Report on medical school curriculum was instrumental in changing the profession of medicine in North America. Financed by a group of physicians, educators, and philanthropists, the report, entitled "Medical Education in the United States and Canada, flexner report. Flexner's report included his conclusions and collected data after he had "evaluated all medical schools in the United States and Canada" [3] by interviewing faculty, reviewing financial records, and making site visits to the facilities.

These schools ranged from university affiliated 4 year programs with strict admission requirements for example, 2- 4 years of collegethat offered student doctors extensive laboratories for science education and hospital wards of patients to afford clinical experienceto diploma mills that had no formal admission standards, no flexner report teaching in scienceflexner report hands-on clinical training and no criteria for graduation other than successful payment flexner report fees.

Flexner and the Carnegie foundation valued modern medical training that was based in laboratory science and couched in the learned atmosphere of the university, and made this bias clear even in its introduction.

Further, the report emphasized that the public had no means to distinguish the qualified from the unqualified physician, and emphasized the unacceptable quality of most of the schools reviewed. Beyond the individual welfare of patients, depicted as the "unwitting" victims of newly minted physicians who were sent out from the inadequate schools to learn their skills by trial and error, flexner report Flexner Report insisted that the entire community suffered or benefited according to the quality of its physicians, arguing that it was these community physicians who were responsible for setting standards of public sanitation and hygiene for each community.

The tone of much of the report is scathing, flexner report, describing entire schools as "filthy" or "utterly hopeless" and repeatedly stressing the concept that the public welfare was jeopardized by the "inadequately trained physician". Since this bulletin was widely circulated, it is easy to understand why popular demand for the reform of medical education followed its publication. Flexner report 19th century saw the germ theory of disease, histologyflexner report, and major advances in chemistry and pharmacology all applied to Medicine.

The former Confederate states were generally flexner report stricken after the Civil War, flexner report, and the educational system there was segregated according to race. In the USA, flexner report, requirements at different medical schools varied tremendously. Only a minority of medical schools were affiliated with universities, there were flexner report of small "proprietary" schools of medicine that were administered by physicians in private practice.

Medicine was viewed as a trade by many physicians, and teaching in a medical school- or running one, was seen by these businessmen-physicians as a legitimate source of revenue, flexner report. With the westward expansion of the United States over the 19th Century, flexner report, the frontier areas held relatively few educated people, and there were different standards set as towns and cities grew than existed in the more established areas in the East, flexner report.

Although women did not receive the right to vote in public elections until 19XX, some managed to become physicians, and there were such things as "Women's Medical Colleges" besides coeducational schools of medicine. Johns Hopkins, which was lauded in the report, was unusual in that it started as a coeducational school, as a group of women provided the final funding needed to start it. Although some black Americans attended nonsegregated medical schools, flexner report, most black physicians graduated from a few schools that were called "Negro Medical Schools".

Even now, the Flexner Report is a historically important document as it captures a description of medical education of its time. Of the homeopathic schools, only five required so much as a high school diploma for entrance and 2 had no educational pre-requisites at all. Several schools were noted to have adequate laboratory facilities, these included the school associated with Boston University, the New York Homeopathy College and the Hahneman School of Philadelphia, flexner report.

Flexner report contrast, several homeopathic schools in Illinois, Kentucky, flexner report, Missouri, and Michigan were condemned as "utterly hopeless" p. Flexner also criticized the overall lack of "clinical material" meaning patients available to students, claiming that some schools were restricted to amphitheater teaching, rather than offering bedside teaching in wards.

Interestingly, the report mentions that the number of schools and the enrollment of students in the homeopathic schools was markedly reduced flexner report ten years previously. In the graduating classes totaled from 22 schoolsand, flexner report, bywere cut "almost in half" to from the 15 remaining schools. Of the 8 eclectic schools, one, in New York City, required the Regents High School diploma for entry, the others had nominal requirements. Three of the schools were described as having some modest assets, but the "remaining five eclectic schools are without exception filthy and almost bare.

In assessing the eclectic schools exposure of flexner report to clinical material in the form of patients, he stated "of the schools under discussion, none has decent clinical opportunities", and went on to claim that what the 3 best of the 8 schools had was "criminally inadequate", the "other five schools have literally nothing at all".

The eclectic schools, like the homeopathic schools were dwindling in numbers at the time of his assessment, with two schools closed since the height of ten inand overall enrollment down to from in The 8 osteopathic schools "fairly reek with commercialism", Flexner complained, quoting brochures that claimed" Although Flexner was uniformly critical of flexner report that promoted careers in medicine to prospective students on the basis of finances, he analyzed each school's finances with an accountant's eye.

Whereas other sorts were condemned for poverty, the osteopathic flexner report were roundly criticized flexner report making a profit from their students. Even though the osteopathic "sect" relied on spinal manipulation as a uniform treatment, this did not excuse them from enabling their students to make a diagnosis, he argued,and that the short course of 3 years, the lack of laboratory facilities was woefully inadequate to do so.

He found particular fault with the "fatally defective" teaching in anatomywhich he argued should be the cornerstone of a school that emphasized spinal manipulation.

Neither Abraham Flexner or the Carnegie Foundation was neutral towards educational philosophies in medicine. Prtchett, argued that a University must support a medical school at a high level of educational standards and provide first class physical and laboratory facilities in his introduction to the report.

His language was blunt to the point of being inflammatory: " There is a certain minimum of equipment and a certain minimum of educational requirement without which no attempt ought to be made to teach medicine.

Hitherto not only proprietary medical schools, but colleges and universities, have paid scant attention to that fact. They have been ready to assume the responsibility of turning loose upon a helpless community men licensed to the practice of medicine without any serious thought as to whether they had received a fair training or not" page xii, Introduction. Flexner Report. Flexner stated that a hospital for clinical training was as important to a medical school as a laboratory for training in chemistry or pathology.

Just as he specified that adequate laboratories were well equipped and supervised, he specified that the appropriate hospital was to be under the direction of the medical school, flexner report.

Johns Hopkins University was lauded in the Flexner Report. Some homeopathic schools, such as Hahnemann, flexner report, converted to the new model. From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium. Jump to: navigationsearch, flexner report. New England Journal of Medicine, flexner report. Hidden categories: Health Sciences tag History tag. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in Request account. Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read View source View history.

Dive In! This page was last modified30 May CZ is free. Main Article.


Flexner Report Transformed Med Schools : NPR


flexner report


Sep 28,  · Abraham Flexner and American Medical Education. His report, addressed primarily to the public, helped change the face of American medical education. The power of Flexner's report derived from his emphasis on the scientific basis of medical practice, the comprehensive nature of his survey, and the appeal of his message to the American by: The Impact of the Flexner Report Page 2 of 26 and statutory, may have played supporting or even lead roles. This study is a preliminary at-tempt to quantify the influence of Flexner in terms of school closings and mergers attributable to his Report. In the absence of . Flexner report, The influential Flexner report of was the precursor of innovation in modern medical curricula, and by correctly placing knowledge of the human body and of biological science at the centre of medicine, great strides were made in medical education and practice. They made a lasting mark on medicine by collectively creating an.